Maerten, L., Legrand, X., Castagnac, C., Lefranc, M., Joonnekindt, J.-P. and Maerten, F., 2019, Fault-related fracture modeling in the complex tectonic environment of the Malay Basin, offshore Malaysia: An integrated 4D geomechanical approach. Marine and Petroleum Geology, 105, 222-237.
3D model restoration over time (Dynel3D or CASSINI)
3D paleo-stress models from 3D model over time (Petrel DFN or ARCH)
Discrete fracture networks over time constrained by paleo-stress (Petrel DFN)
Other applications using similar methodology
This workflow for natural fracture modeling can also be applied to:
Nuclear waste disposal
3D model building
The main data on salt cavern are:
• The complete fault network is used in the geomechanical simulations.
• The 3D model (volume) is built and meshed (tetras) honoring the complexity of the interpreted structure.
• Eroded parts have been added based on geological informations as they are needed for the 3D restoration (Dynel3D or Cassini) over time.
3D restoration over time
• Full sequential 3D restoration (Dynel3D or Cassini) over time showing the evolution of the basin ranging from the Cretaceous to Oligocene extension to the late Miocene contraction creating a basin inversion.
• Left-lateral displacement is also inferred from the 3D restoration along the main bounding fault.
• The geometry of each restoration step can be used to constrain forward geomechanical simulations (Petrel NFP or Arch).
Observed natural fractures versus modeled fractures along wells
• Comparison of rose diagrams between observed and computed (Petrel NFP or Arch) opening mode fracture (joints) developed during the N156° Cretaceous-Oligocene extension.
• Comparison of rose diagrams between observed and computed shearing mode fractures (faults) developed during the N174° late Miocene contraction.
• If there is a good fit between observed and computed fractures along the offset wells, the confidence will be higher for modeling natural fractures in the entire reservoir volumes.
3D paleo-stress fields over time and DFN
• Modeled (Petrel NFP or Arch) normalized intensity trend for opening
fracture type (joints) during the the N156° Cretaceous-Oligocene extension.
• Modeled normalized intensity trend for shear fracture type (faults) during the N174° late Miocene contraction.
• Complete fracture network (Petrel DFN) generated over time using modeled paleo-stress fields.